The archive contains more than 1.5 million images (or spectra) with a total volume of about 65 terabytes (65,000,000,000,000 bytes) of data. [37][38] Several telescopes at La Silla played a role in linking gamma-ray bursts, the most energetic explosions in the universe since the Big Bang, with the explosions of massive stars. Timelapses of ESO's VLT, ALMA and La Silla site. European Astronomical Society (External organisation) Activity: Membership › Membership of committee › Professional. Its deviations from a perfect surface are less than a few thousandths the thickness of a human hair, and its construction and polishing presented a challenge. On January 26, 1954, an ESO declaration was signed by astronomers from six European countries expressing the wish that a joint European observatory be established in the southern hemisphere. [69][70], The VLT Survey Telescope (VST) is a state-of-the-art, 2.6-metre (8 ft 6 in) telescope equipped with OmegaCAM, a 268-megapixel CCD camera with a field of view four times the area of the full moon. [25] Construction work at the ELT site started in June 2014. ESO began its design in early 2006, and aimed to begin construction in 2012. EUROPEAN SOUTHERN OBSERVATORY - ESO EUROPEAN ORGANISATION FOR ASTRONOMICAL RESEARCH IN THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE, European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO), 2 Networks [86] However, few of these planets are among the smallest ever discovered, or reside in its star's habitable zone. Here, ESO operates Jake Noel-Storr - Member. The International Astronomical Union (IAU) Press Office is also hosted by ePOD. Aims. Observations of gamma-ray-burst afterglows were coordinated between the VLT and the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) to identify the possible counterpart (and its decay) at submillimeter wavelengths.[108]. [3] Its observatories are located in northern Chile. With a measured redshift of 8.2, the light from this very remote astronomical source has taken more than 13 billion years to reach the earth. [24] An ESO project is the Extremely Large Telescope (ELT), a 40-metre-class telescope based on a five-mirror design and the formerly planned Overwhelmingly Large Telescope. Astronomers long suspected that a black hole exists at the center of the Milky Way, but their theory was unproven. José Manuel Barroso visits the ESO in January 2013. [56][57], The main facility at Paranal is the VLT, which consists of four nearly identical 8.2-metre (27 ft) unit telescopes (UTs), each hosting two or three instruments. Although ESO is headquartered in Germany, its telescopes and observatories are in northern Chile, where the organisation operates advanced ground-based astronomical facilities: These are among the best locations for astronomical observations in the southern hemisphere. The observatory hosts visitor instruments, attached to a telescope for the duration of an observational run and then removed. It was completed in March 2013 in an international collaboration by Europe (represented by ESO), North America, East Asia and Chile.[4][5]. A year later, this detection was confirmed as the first picture of an exoplanet ever recorded. Its observatories are lo… [67], VISTA was conceived and developed by a consortium of 18 universities in the United Kingdom led by Queen Mary, University of London, and it became an in-kind contribution to ESO as part of the UK's ratification agreement. VISTA and the VST are expected to produce large amounts of data; a single picture taken by VISTA has 67 megapixels, and images from OmegaCam (on the VST) will have 268 megapixels. It is a 12-metre (39 ft)-diameter telescope operating at millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths, the largest of its kind in the southern hemisphere. Its light-gathering power will allow detailed studies of planets around other stars, the first objects in the universe, supermassive black holes, and the nature and distribution of the dark matter and dark energy which dominate the universe. Eso European Organisation For Astronomical Research in The Southern Hemisphere KARL-SCHWARZSCHILD-STR. [84][85], Despite the fact that planets seem very common in the universe they are tiny, faint objects at cosmic scales; this makes their detection difficult with current technology. A 17-year-old adolescent from Chuquicamata, near Calama, submitted the winning essay and was awarded an amateur telescope during the inauguration. Astronomers use this light to study the chemical and physical conditions in these molecular clouds, the dense regions of gas and cosmic dust where new stars are being born. This type of astronomy is a relatively unexplored frontier, revealing a universe which cannot be seen in more-familiar visible or infrared light and ideal for studying the "cold universe"; light at these wavelengths shines from vast cold clouds in interstellar space at temperatures only a few tens of degrees above absolute zero. [136][137], As part of the Department, European outreach for the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope provides comprehensive information about the telescope and its scientific discoveries. [96], With the Very Large Telescope, astronomers have made an independent determination of the age of the universe and shed new light on the earliest stages of the Milky Way. The star (and the Milky Way) must have formed soon after the Big Bang. [143] ESO also publishes announcements[144] and Pictures of the Week[145] on its website. [58], The first of the UTs had its first light in May 1998, and was offered to the astronomical community on 1 April 1999. The ESOcast[147] is a video-podcast series dedicated to reporting news and research from ESO. It occurred when the universe was less than 600 million years old (less than five percent of its present age), and released 300 times as much energy in a few seconds as the sun will in its entire lifetime (more than 10 billion years). They are known to occur at great distances from earth, near the limits of the observable universe. The VLT has observed the afterglow of the farthest known gamma-ray burst. [79] ALMA is a collaboration between East Asia (Japan and Taiwan), Europe (ESO), North America (USA and Canada) and Chile. These techniques use the grid paradigm of distributed computing with seamless, transparent access to data through virtual observatories (VOs). These data sets cover the sky at all wavelengths, from gamma- and X-rays through optical, infrared and radio waves. For this reason, most exoplanets have been detected with indirect methods. All press releases (dating back to 1985) are available online. The European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere,[2] commonly referred to as the European Southern Observatory (ESO), is a 16-nation intergovernmental research organisation for ground-based astronomy. The array will be able to probe the universe at millimetre and submillimeter wavelengths with unprecedented sensitivity and resolution, with vision up to ten times sharper than the Hubble Space Telescope. The temporary office buildings at the ESO Headquarters in Garching being dismantled. The Science Archive Operation Group receives and redistributes ESO data and provides archival support. APEX is based on a prototype ALMA antenna that is modified to be operated as single dish radio telescope. Their data showed that the light had similar properties to that of a supernova, and allowed astronomers to link long-duration GRBs with the ultimate explosions of massive stars (hypernovae). In 2003, ESO telescopes followed the aftermath of an explosion for one month. Because the star cannot be older than the universe itself, the universe must be older than this. La Silla also hosts national telescopes, such as the 1.2-metre Swiss and the 1.5-metre Danish telescopes. Stars at the centre of the Milky Way are so densely packed that special imaging techniques (such as adaptive optics) were needed to boost the resolution of the VLT. The site is 750 metres (2,460 ft) higher than the Mauna Kea Observatory and 2,400 metres (7,900 ft) higher than the VLT in Cerro Paranal. The Messenger is a quarterly journal which has presented ESO's activities to the public since May 1974. The European Organization for Astronomical Research (ESO) is one of the world’s leading research organizations. This technology (developed by ESO and known as active optics) is now applied to all major telescopes, including the VLT and the future ELT. The ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) allows astronomers to see details up to 25 times finer than those seen with the individual telescopes. 2009/1748) (“the ESO Order”) and the European Space Agency (Immunities and Privileges) Order 1978 (S.I. [98], Another result is the first measurement of the beryllium content of two stars in a Milky Way globular cluster. Transnational Joint Calls and Funded Projects, Partner Search for Partnership Initiatives, Strategic Research and Innovation Agendas, European Joint Programme Cofund (EJP Cofund), European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere. [87], The Danish 1.54-metre telescope at La Silla participated in the discovery of one of the most Earth-like planets found to date. ID: 108087738. Events such as the 2009 International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009) (with IAU and UNESCO), VLT First Light, Astronomy Online and the Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9 impact, have been reported by the Department. ESO, European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere The Atacama Pathfinder Experiment telescope is operated by ESO in collaboration with the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany and the Onsala Space Observatory in Onsala, Sweden. ESO press releases describe scientific, technical and organisational developments and achievements and results obtained by scientists with ESO facilities. A step in the attempt to answer this question is the search for planets outside the Solar System. The VLTI can achieve an angular resolution of milliarcseconds, equivalent to the ability to see the headlights of a car on the moon. Suggest new definition. The light beams are combined in the VLTI with a complex system of mirrors in tunnels, where the light paths must diverge less than 1/1000 mm over 100 metres. The European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere , commonly referred to as the European Southern Observatory (ESO), is a 16-nation intergovernmental research organisation for ground-based astronomy. [82][83], "Is there life elsewhere in the universe?" [133], A collection of photos and videos can be found in the ESO Public Image Gallery and Video Library. Tim de Zeeuw talks on ESO and its 50th Anniversary. 0 active Networks Establish and operate astronomical observatories in the southern hemisphere, furthering and organizing collaboration in astronomy, covering a wide spectrum of activities, including design and construction of world-class ground-based … Observations made with these instruments appear in a number of peer-reviewed publications annually; in 2017, more than 1,000 reviewed papers based on ESO data were published.[30]. Four 1.8-metre auxiliary telescopes (ATs), installed between 2004 and 2007, have been added to the VLTI for accessibility when the UTs are used for other projects. Die Europäische Organisation für astronomische Forschung in der südlichen Hemisphäre (englisch European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere) oder in der Kurzform Europäische Südsternwarte (engl. English - ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. Like other observatories in the area, La Silla is far from sources of light pollution and has one of the darkest night skies on Earth. Chair of the Working Group for Inclusion in Astronomy. ESO telescopes generate large amounts of data at a high rate, which are stored in a permanent archive facility at ESO headquarters. ESO is the intergovernmental European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere. [101] The VLT observations also revealed flashes of infrared light emerging from the region at regular intervals. In 1966, the first ESO telescope at the La Silla site in Chile began operating. [63], At the Paranal inauguration in March 1999, names of celestial objects in the Mapuche language were chosen to replace the technical designations of the four VLT Unit Telescopes (UT1–UT4). ESO's 50th-anniversary event (Munich Residenz in Germany, 11 October 2012), ESO's first 50 years of exploring the southern sky. The ELT will be the largest visible and near-infrared telescope in the world. [122] These include a range of programs and products that aim to meet the requirements of media, science communicators and the public, such as press releases, images, videos and printed material. In 2013, the IMAX documentary Hidden Universe 3D was produced in co-operation of Cinema Productions, Film Victoria, Swinburne University of Technology, and the European Southern Observatory. team The 2.2-metre telescope has been in operation at La Silla since early 1984, and is on indefinite loan to ESO from the Max Planck Society (Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften, or MPG, in German). Astronomers are developing ways to make the large amount of data easily accessible. The possibility exists that one of these planets is covered by oceans; this discovery is an encouraging result in the search for planets which could support life. ", "Fifty New Exoplanets Discovered by HARPS", "It's Far, It's Small, It's Cool: It's an Icy Exoplanet! The new draft was examined in detail, and a council member of CERN (the European Organization for Nuclear Research) highlighted the need for a convention between governments (in addition to organisations). [19] ESO's European departments moved into the new ESO headquarters in Garching (near Munich), Germany in 1980. Should you have any recommendations or questions, please don’t hesitate and send us an e-mail using this link Have a nice day! ESO has built and operated some of the largest and most technologically advanced telescopes. The organisation employs about 730 staff members and receives annual member state contributions of approximately €162 million. Cerro Paranal is a 2,635-metre-high (8,645 ft) mountain about 120 kilometres (75 mi) south of Antofagasta and 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) from the Pacific coast. [46], The Paranal Observatory is located atop Cerro Paranal in the Atacama Desert in northern Chile. Teams of European astronomers will conduct the surveys; some will cover most of the southern sky, while others will focus on smaller areas. [66], Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) is housed on the peak adjacent to the one hosting the VLT, sharing observational conditions. It has been upgraded, including the installation of a new secondary mirror. 1962-10-05 Paris France History. The conclusion was that short-duration bursts could not be caused by a hypernova; instead, it is thought that they originate in the violent merges of neutron stars or black holes. [107] La Silla also hosts several national and project telescopes not operated by ESO. This definition appears very frequently and is found in the following Acronym Finder categories: Science, medicine, engineering, etc. The organisation publishes three types of press releases. [103] In the active galaxy NGC 1097, a complex network of filaments spiraling from the main part of the galaxy to its centre was seen in great detail.[104]. Currently under construction is the Extremely Large Telescope. An additional compact array of four 12-metre and twelve 7-metre (23 ft) antennas is also planned. 2 in Garching bei München Hochschul- und Forschungszentrum, ☎ Telefon 089 32006900 mit ⌚ Öffnungszeiten und Anfahrtsplan [112], Outreach activities are carried out by the ESO education and Public Outreach Department (ePOD). These images will complement those made with the VLT Interferometer. [123][124][125] [36] In La Silla, ESO operates three telescopes: a 3.6-metre telescope, the New Technology Telescope (NTT) and the 2.2-metre Max-Planck-ESO Telescope. [40] The conventionally designed horseshoe-mount telescope was primarily used for infrared spectroscopy; it now hosts the HARPS spectrograph, used in search of extra-solar planets and for asteroseismology. [141] Science releases describe results (usually appearing in a peer-reviewed journal) involving data from ESO observatories or staff. The orange laser beam from the telescope is used for, ALMA antenna en route to Chajnantor plateau, Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy, supermassive black hole at the centre of the galaxy, ESO Supernova Planetarium & Visitor Centre, "Gala Event Celebrates 50 Years of the European Southern Observatory", "A Timeless Sanctuary in Santiago – The ESO Guesthouse, Then and Now", "Claudio Melo Becomes ESO Representative in Chile", "European Extremely Large Telescope to break ground (using dynamite) live later today", "Comprehensive characterization of astronomical sites", "Conference Astronomical Site Testing Data in Chile", "Minutes of the ESO Chile Joint Committee", "Astronomers Find First Earth-like Planet in Habitable Zone", "The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets", "Raymond Wilson honoured with two prestigious prizes", "Extrasolar Planet in Double Star System Discovered from La Silla", "Southern Sky extrasolar Planet search Programme", Kelly Beatty – Former 'tenth planet' may be smaller than Pluto, "A Giant of Astronomy and a Quantum of Solace", "Unprecedented 16-Year Long Study Tracks Stars Orbiting Milky Way Black Hole", "NASA's Swift Catches Farthest Ever Gamma-Ray Burst", "VLT Unit Telescopes Named at Paranal Inauguration", "VISTA: Pioneering New Survey Telescope Starts Work", "First stunning images captured by VISTA Telescope", "VISTA Stares Deeply into the Blue Lagoon", "First Images from the VLT Survey Telescope", "VLT Survey Telescope Center at Naples Web Portal", "ALMA Site Characterization and Monitoring", "ALMA Early Science Cycle 0 Call for Proposals", "Bad Astronomy, FIRST EXOPLANET IMAGE CONFIRMED! The VST and VISTA produce more than 100 terabytes of data per year.[73]. In 2004, the Very Large Telescope detected a faint glow from an apparent planet orbiting a star about 200 light-years from earth. Since then the telescope has been operated by ESO,[68] capturing quality images since it began operation. About 200 Terabytes (TB) of public data are distributed per year through the ESO archive. ALMA is an astronomical interferometer of innovative design, initially composed of 66 high-precision antennas and operating at wavelengths of 0.3 to 3.6 mm. ESO also selects its best astronomical images, and presents them publicly in periodic photo releases. [41], The New Technology Telescope (NTT) is an altazimuth, 3.58-metre Ritchey–Chrétien telescope, inaugurated in 1989 and the first in the world with a computer-controlled main mirror. VISTA's infrared view of the Orion Nebula, A 340-million pixel starscape from Paranal, The WR 22 and Eta Carinae regions of the Carina Nebula, The future ALMA array on Chajnantor (artist's rendering), Rare 360-degree Panorama of the Southern Sky, 370-million-pixel starscape of the Lagoon Nebula, The R Coronae Australis region imaged with the Wide Field Imager at La Silla, Coordinates: 48°15′36″N 11°40′16″E / 48.26000°N 11.67111°E / 48.26000; 11.67111, Intergovernmental organization and observatory in Chile, "ESO" redirects here. This Order amends the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (Immunities and Privileges) Order 2009 (S.I. As a physical observatory has telescopes with unique astronomical instruments, a VO consists of data centres with unique collections of astronomical data, software systems and processing capabilities. 5 Oct 1962, Paris (France), as European Southern Observatory.Statutes registered in 'UNTS 1/14697'.. The Llano de Chajnantor is a 5,100-metre-high (16,700 ft) plateau in the Atacama Desert, about 50 kilometres (31 mi) east of San Pedro de Atacama. [106] In 2005, ESO telescopes detected visible light after a short-duration burst and tracked this light for three weeks. With this measurement, astronomers found that the first generation of stars in our galaxy must have formed soon after the end of the 200-million-year "Dark Age" following the Big Bang.[99]. The agreement involves Breakthrough Initiatives providing funding for an upgrade to the VISIR (VLT Imager and Spectrometer for mid-Infrared)[92] instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile. Other instruments used are GROND (Gamma-Ray Burst Optical Near-Infrared Detector), which seeks the afterglow of gamma-ray bursts—the most powerful explosions in the universe,[45] and the high-resolution spectrograph FEROS (Fiber-fed Extended Range Optical Spectrograph), used to make detailed studies of stars. 1-Dec-2019. Thanks to these techniques, astronomers were able to watch individual stars with unprecedented accuracy as they circled the Galactic Center. [10], The idea that European astronomers should establish a common large observatory was broached by Walter Baade and Jan Oort at the Leiden Observatory in the Netherlands in spring 1953. This wavelength range is also ideal for studying some of the earliest (and most distant) galaxies in the universe, whose light has been redshifted into longer wavelengths from the expansion of the universe.[75][76]. [100] Their paths conclusively demonstrated that they were orbiting in the immense gravitational grip of a supermassive black hole nearly three million times more massive than the sun. For other uses, see, ESO logo and map of participating countries, Architect's rendering of ESO headquarters extension, A Bird's-eye View of ESO headquarters in 2014, VLT Laser Guide Star. This upgrade will greatly increase the likelihood of planet detection in the system. The planet, detected using the microlensing technique and about five times as massive as Earth, circles its parent star in about 10 years and most certainly has a rocky and icy surface.[88][89]. Telescope time is shared between MPG and ESO observing programmes, while operation and maintenance of the telescope are ESO's responsibility. The secondary mirror position is also adjustable in three directions. The ESO La Silla Observatory also played a role in the study of supernova SN 1987A. On behalf of its thirteen member states ESO operates a suite of the world's most advanced ground-based astronomical telescopes located at the La … Please check our privacy and cookies policy. Observations show that GRBs are one of two types: short- (less than a few seconds) and long-duration. [77][78] APEX is a precursor of ALMA (the Atacama Large Millimeter Array), an astronomical interferometer which ESO and its international partners is building on the Chajnantor plateau. On November 15, 1963 Chile was chosen as the site for ESO's observatory. Breakthroughs in telescope, detector and computer technology now allow astronomical surveys to produce large numbers of images, spectra and catalogues. Conclusive evidence was obtained after 16 years of monitoring the Galactic Center with ESO telescopes at the La Silla and Paranal observatories. ERA-LEARN has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 811171. The telescope was designed for very high long-term radial velocity accuracy (on the order of 1 m/s). Welcome to our European job board Although it was initially planned to set up telescopes in South Africa (where several European observatories were located), tests from 1955 to 1963 demonstrated that a site in the Andes was preferable. We use cookies for statistical purposes and to remember your settings. ESO's observatories are equipped with an arsenal of instruments for finding, studying, and monitoring extrasolar planets.

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